# Poker Ranges – Everything to Know

## What Is A Poker Range?

In poker, a range is the set of possible hands that a player might have. A hand can be any combination of cards, and a player’s range will usually depend on the situation they’re in. For example, if a player is first to act in a hand, their range will be wider than if they’re last to act.

There are two general types of ranges: tight ranges and loose ranges. Tight ranges are narrower than loose ranges, meaning that there are fewer possible hands included in the range. Loose ranges are wider than tight ranges, meaning that there are more possible hands included in the range.

Tight players tend to play fewer hands overall, and they’re often more selective about the hands they do play. Loose players tend to play more hands overall, and they’re often less selective about the hands they do play.

The size of a player’s range can also vary depending on the game type. For example, in cash games, players often have wider ranges than in tournament play.

Ranges can be represented using different notation systems.

The most common system is the percentage or “P” system, which uses numbers to indicate how many possible hands are included in a range.

Other popular notation systems include the “H” system (which uses letters to denote ranges) and the “C” system (which uses colors to denote ranges).

## How to Think of Poker Ranges

There are a few different ways to think about poker ranges.

The first way is to think about the range of hands that a player could have in a particular situation.

The second way is to think about the range of hands that a player would actually play in a particular situation.

The third way to think about poker ranges is to think about the range of possible outcomes that a player could achieve with a particular hand. This is sometimes referred to as “expected value” or “EV.”

Expected value is a mathematical concept that’s used to calculate the average result of a given situation. In poker, expected value is used to compare different possible actions and determine which action is most likely to lead to a profitable result.

When thinking about expected value, it’s important to consider all of the different possible outcomes of a given situation.

For example, if you’re holding a hand like A♠K♠ and you’re up against a range of hands that includes all pocket pairs, all suited connectors, and all offsuit aces, the expected value of your hand is 3-to-1. This means that, on average, you’ll win three times for every one time you lose.

## 4 Types Of Poker Ranges

### Poker Hand Matrix

A poker hand matrix is a tool that can be used to help you understand ranges. A hand matrix is a grid that shows all of the possible hands a player could have in a given situation.

### Percentage Form

Percentage form in poker is when a player expresses the size of their range as a percentage. The most common way to do this is with the “P” system, which uses numbers to indicate how many possible hands are included in a range.

For example, if a player has a “P50” range, that means their range includes 50% of all possible hands. If a player has a “P100” range, that means their range includes all possible hands.

The percentage form can be used to express both tight ranges and loose ranges.

A tight range might be something like “P20,” which would include 20% of all possible hands. A loose range might be something like “P80,” which would include 80% of all possible hands.

It’s also possible to express ranges in terms of both percentages and hand types. For example, a range might be expressed as “TT-QQ/P20,” which would mean that the range includes all pocket pairs from Ten-Ten to Queen-Queen, plus 20% of all other possible hands.

The percentage form is the most common way to express poker ranges, but it’s not the only way. Other popular notation systems include the “H” system (which uses letters to denote ranges) and the “C” system (which uses colors to denote ranges).

### Range Combos

Range combos are two or more individual ranges that have been combined into a single range.

For example, a player might have a range that includes all pocket pairs, all suited connectors, and all offsuit aces. This range could be expressed as “TT-QQ/AKo/P20.”

Range combos are often used when talking about preflop ranges. This is because there are so many different possible ways to combine ranges in preflop situations.

In general, the more specific you can be when discussing ranges, the better. But at the same time, it’s also important to not get too bogged down in the details. The goal is to find a balance between being specific and being general.

### Range Strand

A range strand is a series of connected ranges that have been combined into a single range.

For example, a player might have a range that includes all pocket pairs from Ten-Ten to Queen-Queen, plus all suited connectors from Eight-Nine to King-Jack. This range could be expressed as “TT-QQ/88-KJ.”

Range strands are often used when talking about postflop ranges. This is because it’s often helpful to think about ranges in terms of the different hands that a player could have on different streets.

For example, if a player has a range of “TT-QQ/88-KJ” on the flop, that means their range consists of all pocket pairs from Ten-Ten to Queen-Queen, plus all suited connectors from Eight-Nine to King-Jack.

But on the turn, their range might change to “TT-QQ/88-KJ/78.” And on the river, their range might change again to “TT-QQ/88-KJ/78/67.”

## Stack Sizes

When talking about ranges, it’s also important to consider stack sizes. This is because different size stacks can change the way a player ranges hands.

For example, if a player has a 100bb stack, they can afford to play much looser than if they had a 20bb stack. This is because they can afford to take more risks and still have enough chips left to survive if things don’t go their way.

Alternatively, if a player has a 100bb stack and their opponent has a 20bb stack, the player can afford to be much more aggressive. This is because the player can put more pressure on their opponent and force them to make tough decisions.

In general, the bigger the stacks are, the looser the ranges will be. The smaller the stacks are, the tighter the ranges will be.

This is why it’s important to always consider stack sizes when talking about ranges.

## How To Calculate Ranges in Poker

There are a few different ways to calculate poker ranges. The most common method is to use software like Equilab or PokerStove.

These programs allow you to input information about a hand and then see what range of hands your opponent could have. They also allow you to input ranges and see how often different hands will hit different boards.

Another way to calculate ranges is to do it manually. This can be done by using something called the “Hand Matrix.”

The Hand Matrix is a tool that allows you to see all the possible combinations of hands that a player could have. It’s a bit like a poker odds calculator, but it’s much more limited in scope.

To use the Hand Matrix, you need to input the number of different types of hands that a player could have. For example, if a player could have any pocket pair, any suited connector, or any offsuit ace, you would input 3.

Then, you need to input the number of different ways that each hand can be made. For example, there are 6 different ways to make a pocket pair (2 pocket cards x 3 possible combinations).

There are 4 different ways to make a suited connector (2 suited cards x 2 possible combinations). And there are 12 different ways to make an offsuit ace (1 ace x 4 possible suits).

Once you have this information, the Hand Matrix will show you all the possible combinations of hands that a player could have.

This can be a bit daunting, but it’s actually not as complicated as it sounds. And it’s a great way to get a feel for how ranges work.

## Preflop vs. Postflop Ranges in Poker

The term “range” is usually used in the context of postflop play. This is because it’s often helpful to think about ranges in terms of the different hands that a player could have on different streets.

For example, if a player has a range of “TT-QQ/88-KJ” on the flop, that means their range consists of all pocket pairs from Ten-Ten to Queen-Queen, plus all suited connectors from Eight-Nine to King-Jack.

But on the turn, their range might change to “TT-QQ/88-KJ/78.” And on the river, their range might change again to “TT-QQ/88-KJ/78/67.”

However, it’s also important to think about ranges in the context of preflop play. This is because the way a player ranges hands can be very different on different streets.

For example, if a player has a range of “TT-QQ/88-KJ” on the flop, that means their range consists of all pocket pairs from Ten-Ten to Queen-Queen, plus all suited connectors from Eight-Nine to King-Jack.

But on the turn, their range might change to “TT-QQ/88-KJ/78.” And on the river, their range might change again to “TT-QQ/88-KJ/78/67.”

This is why it’s important to think about ranges in both the preflop and postflop contexts. By doing so, you’ll get a much better understanding of how players range hands on different streets.

## How To Use Ranges

Now that you know how to calculate and express poker ranges, it’s time to learn how to use them.

The first thing you need to do is learn how to put your opponent on a range. This can be done by using the information available to you.

For example, let’s say you’re in a hand with an opponent and they raise preflop.

Based on this information, you can put them on a range of hands that includes all pocket pairs, all suited connectors, and all offsuit aces.

Now, let’s say you’re in a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call.

Based on this information, you can put them on a range of hands that includes all pocket pairs, all suited connectors, and all offsuit aces.

Now, let’s say you’re in a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call. The turn is a six, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they call.

Based on this information, you can put them on a range of hands that includes all pocket pairs, all suited connectors, and all offsuit aces.

As you can see, the process of putting your opponent on a range is relatively simple. You just need to use the information available to you.

Once you’ve put your opponent on a range, you can then use that range to make better decisions.

For example, let’s say you’re in a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call. The turn is a six, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they call. The river is a seven, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they fold.

In this hand, you can use the information you have to put your opponent on a range. Based on that range, you can decide whether or not to bet on the river.

If you think your opponent has a strong hand, you can check and hope they bet. If you think your opponent has a weak hand, you can bet and try to take the pot down.

Ranges are a powerful tool that can be used to make better decisions in poker By learning how to put your opponent on a range, and then using that range to make decisions, you can increase chances of success in poker.

## Game Theory Optimal (GTO) Ranges in Poker

One of the most important concepts in poker is game theory optimal (GTO) play.

GTO play is a style of play that is designed to be unexploitable. In other words, if you are playing GTO, your opponents will not be able to take advantage of you.

GTO play is often associated with ranges. This is because ranges are a key component of GTO play.

In order to play GTO, you need to have a solid understanding of ranges. Without this understanding, it’s very difficult to make correct decisions.

There are two main types of GTO ranges: preflop and postflop.

## How To Balance Your Poker Range

One of the most important things you need to do when playing poker is to balance your range.

A balanced range is a range of hands that has a similar number of value hands and bluffing hands.

For example, let’s say you’re playing a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call. The turn is a six, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they fold.

In this hand, you can use the information you have to put your opponent on a range. Based on that range, you can decide whether or not to bet on the river.

If you think your opponent has a strong hand, you can check and hope they bet. If you think your opponent has a weak hand, you can bet and try to take the pot down.

Ranges are a powerful tool that can be used to make better decisions in poker By learning how to put your opponent on a range, and then using that range to make decisions, you can increase chances of success in poker.

One of the most important things you need to do when playing poker is to balance your range.

A balanced range is a range of hands that has a similar number of value hands and bluffing hands.

For example, let’s say you’re playing a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call. The turn is a six, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they fold.

In this hand, you can use the information you have to put your opponent on a range. Based on that range, you can decide whether or not to bet on the river.

If you think your opponent has a strong hand, you can check and hope they bet. If you think your opponent has a weak hand, you can bet and try to take the pot down.

Ranges are a powerful tool that can be used to make better decisions in poker By learning how to put your opponent on a range, and then using that range to make decisions, you can increase chances of success in poker.

## GTO vs. Exploitative Ranges

In poker, you have two types of ranges known as GTO and exploitative.

GTO ranges are ranges that are designed to be unexploitable. In other words, if you are playing GTO, your opponents will not be able to take advantage of you.

Exploitative ranges are ranges that exploit the weaknesses of your opponents.

For example, let’s say you’re playing a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call. The turn is a six, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they fold.

In this hand, you can use the information you have to put your opponent on a range. Based on that range, you can decide whether or not to bet on the river.

If you think your opponent has a strong hand, you can check and hope they bet. If you think your opponent has a weak hand, you can bet and try to take the pot down.

Ranges are a powerful tool that can be used to make better decisions in poker By learning how to put your opponent on a range, and then using that range to make decisions, you can increase chances of success in poker.

One of the key things to remember is that GTO ranges are often wider than exploitative ranges. This is because GTO ranges are designed to be unexploitable, and therefore need to account for all possible scenarios.

Exploitative ranges, on the other hand, are narrower because they only need to account for the specific situation at hand.

The main difference between GTO and exploitative ranges is that GTO ranges are designed to be unexploitable while exploitative ranges exploit the weaknesses of your opponents.

Both types of ranges have their own advantages and disadvantages, and it’s up to you to decide which one you want to use in any given situation.

If you’re not sure which type of range to use, a good default option is GTO. However, if you have specific information about your opponent that you can exploit, then an exploitative range may be more advantageous.

## How to Exploit Your Opponent’s Poker Range

There are a few key things you need to do in order to exploit your opponent’s poker range.

First, you need to be able to put your opponent on a range. Second, you need to have a good understanding of what their range looks like. And third, you need to know how to exploit the weaknesses in their range.

Let’s say you’re playing a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call. The turn is a six, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they fold.

In this hand, you can use the information you have to put your opponent on a range. Based on that range, you can decide whether or not to bet on the river.

If you think your opponent has a strong hand, you can check and hope they bet. If you think your opponent has a weak hand, you can bet and try to take the pot down.

## Putting Your Opponent on a Range

One of the most important things you need to do in order to exploit your opponent’s range is to put them on a range.

This means trying to determine what kinds of hands they are likely to have based on the information you have.

There are a few key things you need to keep in mind when putting your opponent on a range.

First, you need to pay attention to their betting patterns.

Second, you need to consider the board texture. And third, you need to think about what their hand looks like.

Let’s say you’re playing a hand with an opponent and the flop comes Ace-Ten-Five. Your opponent bets, and you call. The turn is a six, and your opponent checks. You bet, and they fold.

In this hand, you can use the information you have to put your opponent on a range. Based on that range, you can decide whether or not to bet on the river.

If you think your opponent has a strong hand, you can check and hope they bet. If you think your opponent has a weak hand, you can bet and try to take the pot down.

There are a few key things you can do to improve your range reading skills.

First, you need to pay attention to the betting patterns of your opponents. Second, you need to consider the board texture. And third, you need to think about what their hand looks like.

By paying attention to these things, you can start to get a better understanding of how your opponents play and what kinds of hands they are likely to have.

One of the best ways to improve your range reading skills is to practice with a friend or family member.

Try putting them on a range in different situations and see if you can correctly guess what they have.

The more you practice, the better you’ll become at reading ranges.

## FAQs – Poker Ranges

### What is a GTO poker range?

A GTO poker range is a range of hands that is designed to be unexploitable.

This means that no matter what your opponent does, you will always have the +EV play.

GTO ranges are often used as a default option because they are safe and reliable. However, they can also be disadvantageous if your opponent knows how to exploit them.

### What is an exploitative poker range?

An exploitative poker range is a range of hands that exploits the weaknesses of your opponents.

This means that you will be playing against their specific tendencies in order to take advantage of their mistakes.

Exploitative ranges can be very powerful if used correctly. However, they can also be very dangerous if your opponent is able to adjust.

### What is a polarized poker range?

A polarized poker range is a range of hands that contains both strong and weak hands.

This type of range is often used when you are not sure what your opponent has.

Polarized ranges can be effective in situations where your opponent is likely to have a wide range.

### What is an unpaired poker range?

An unpaired poker range is a range of hands that only contains unpaired cards.

This type of range is often used when you want to bluff or Semi-Bluff.

Unpaired ranges can be effective in situations where you think your opponent will fold to a bet.

### What is a tight poker range?

A tight poker range is a range of hands that only contains strong hands.

This type of range is often used when you want to play for value.

Tight ranges can be effective in situations where you think your opponent will call with a wide range.

### What is a loose poker range?

A loose poker range is a range of hands that contains both strong and weak hands.

This type of range is often used when you want to bluff or Semi-Bluff.

Loose ranges can be effective in situations where you think your opponent will fold to a bet.

### What is a capped poker range?

A capped poker range is a range of hands that only contains a certain number of strong hands.

This type of range is often used when you want to play for value but don’t want to get raised.

Capped ranges can be effective in situations where you think your opponent will call with a wide range.

## Poker Ranges – Conclusion

In conclusion, ranges are an important part of poker. By understanding how to read ranges, you can make better decisions and take down more pots.

Practice makes perfect, so be sure to try out different scenarios with a friend or family member. The more you practice, the better you’ll become at reading ranges.